At the level of the national community, culture and identity have been seen as processes for nation building (Hobson & Lister 2003b). The framing of citizenship is linked to nationalist projects, constructions based on notions of origin and culture as well as ideologies that define who is to be included in the Collective We (Turner 1993; Yuval Davis 1997). National and citizenship identity are conflated in this process. Over the last decades, different social groups and social movements have confronted the cultural narratives of membership and nationhood (Lake 2003), which have left out their histories of exclusion and marginalization. They have challenged
the false universalism in the framing of citizenship that has shaded out particularized experiences and identities in the practice of citizenship, including gender, ethnicity/ race, indigeneity, sexual preference, disability and religious beliefs. The salience in these kinds of claims based on particularized identities and the range of claimants and claims making has spawned much research on the politics of recognition (Taylor 1994; Honneth 1995; Fraser 2003; Hobson 2003a).