The Late Bronze Age: technologies and ideologies
DOI link for The Late Bronze Age: technologies and ideologies
The Late Bronze Age: technologies and ideologies book
The Mitannian kingdom (a.k.a. Hurri or Hanigalbat) already existed at the time of Hattusili I. Therefore, Upper Mesopotamia, which experienced the majority of changes in this phase, does not constitute a total gap in our knowledge anymore. Nonetheless, this phase shows a visible decrease of textual evidence. Broadly speaking, for Babylonia there is a gap between the Old Babylonian and the Kassite documentation. The latter only provides evidence from the Amarna Age onwards. Equally vast is the gap between the Assyrian kings Ishme-Dagan and Ashur-uballit, while the Hittite gap between Mursili and Telipinu is far shorter. On a local level, there is the gap between the texts of Alalah VII (ca. 1700-1650 bc) and Alalah IV (ca. 1550-1450 bc), since levels VI to V have not yielded any texts. This drastic reduction in the available sources cannot be entirely due to chance in the excavations. The sixteenth century bc must have been a consolidating period for new state administrations, such as the ones of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni and of the Kassite kingdom of Babylonia. These new state formations must have needed some time to implement an effective system to control their territories and manage their economy.