I began this book by contrasting the recession strategies of two domestic appliance companies. In the words of their directors, Rose had 'cut back heavily', while Exemplar had 'hung on'. This contrast served to introduce the central issue of strategie choice, and it has been argued in the preceding chapter the divergencies in the two companies' strategies should be understood as shaped by the pe cu li ar ideologies of each company's dominant actors. But the contrast raised a number of other issues which it will be the task of this concluding chapter to address. In particular, the Section below will summarize the implications of these eight companies' performances for the management of strategy and organizational change in recession. The following section will conclude the book by reviewing the argument for a Realist approach to strategie choice, and examining its implications for our conceptions about how large enterprises act and are controlled in our society.