This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book deals with government policies concerning women in Turkey, specifically in the areas of employment, education, and health, and the fundamental transformation of the reconstruction of gender since the early 2000s. It examines the Turkish case within the broader context of international development of neoliberalism while paying close attention to its idiosyncrasies. The book deals with a commitment to gender equality; it believes that a more equitable distribution of power between men and women is a sine quo non for healthy and sustainable societies. It shows how the intersection of global neoliberalism and Islamic conservatism, as two distinct ideologies, takes shape within the Turkish context, reshaping gender relations. The book shows that global neoliberalism and Islamic conservatism, although distinct ideologies, do share common assumptions concerning gender.