Most holocaust survivors eventually made their way to countries far from Europe. In Israel, the United States, Australia, Canada, and Latin America, Jewish refugees set about the quietly heroic task of rebuilding their shattered lives. By the middle of the twentieth century, the ancient Jewish civilizations, in both Christian Europe and the Muslim Middle East, had come to an end through a mixture of voluntary immigration, forced expulsions, and mass murder. In the 1940s, the combined impact of the Holocaust and Britain’s obstructionism, which continued to prevent Jewish refugees from getting to Palestine, radicalized certain elements in the Yishuv. An important change in Israeli attitudes toward Holocaust survivors took place with the Eichmann trial, which was held in Jerusalem from April 11 to August 16, 1961. Israel offered the Gaza Strip, a large part of the West Bank, while keeping major settlement blocks and most of East Jerusalem.