Energy has become increasingly prominent as a matter of social concern. The aspiration of a critical perspective is, through its awareness of social structures and material practices, to understand and explain in ways that enable improvement in social and environmental conditions. A handful of different policy framings of the energy–society relationship exist simultaneously, from energy efficiency, energy transition and energy poverty to energy-for-development, energy justice and energy security. There are many different models of ownership associated with energy production networks, including community-owned systems, public ownership via municipalities or states, and private corporations owned by shareholders. Securing reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable energy is one of the grand challenges of the twenty-first century. The importance of energy to economic and social life means that questions about how and by whom energy systems should be owned have figured prominently in broader debates about political philosophy. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.