This chapter examines the relationship between territory and energy, and presents an alternative reading of energy landscapes to the traditional geopolitical focus on the international supply of fossil fuels. The geopolitics of energy is visible in the case of nuclear power, which illustrates how 'mega energy ideas', requiring centralised, national-scale, and corporate-led control networks have been advanced in relation to geopolitical landscapes. A global energy dilemmas perspective highlights the disruptive influence on the geopolitical landscape of two developments in relation to high-carbon fuels. The first is the growing commitment to address the threat of climate change; and the second is the impact of the unconventional oil and gasrevolution. The energy systems that respond to this challenge will constitute new territories and identities that shape the geopolitical landscapes of a low carbon energy world. The chapter reviews on the politics of national identity and sovereignty that underpin hydrocarbon circulations.