This chapter examines the circumstances and processes through which patterns of energy deprivation are produced in different parts of the world, focusing in particular on the settings of home, household and community. It also examines the different consequences of inadequate access to energy services, in addition to providing a critical interrogation of the informal and formal amelioration strategies that are utilised and developed in this context. The chapter reviews the energy poverty and vulnerability situated within a broader consideration of the political, institutional and infrastructural underpinnings of marginality in the global North and South alike. It aims to connect the causes and consequences of energy deprivation with current developments at the global scale. Using energy services in the home as a lynchpin, it outlines the key components that contribute to inequalities in energy consumption: questions of energy access, energy affordability, energy efficiency and house hold needs. The chapter also discusses the dominant definitions of fuel and energy poverty.