This chapter provides a foundation for discussing the involvement of tourism enterprises in the global human rights agenda. A difficulty in the use of the corporate form and the granting of powers and capabilities to corporations has throughout history been the reconciliation of the private motive and the public purpose of the activity exercised within the corporation. Proponents of free market reforms have argued that reliance on market forces within an open economy is fundamental for economic growth and social progress. The idea of free markets is connected to the principle of shareholder primacy, where the primary responsibility of managers of the corporation is to the shareholders of the corporation. International human rights have traditionally been developed and enforced by states. In addition to international principles addressing the responsibility corporations have to respect human rights, human rights are often protected at the national level.