The Introduction to this book provides an assessment of the significance of the changing Polar Regions and of their politics by outlining environmental, economic, societal and security transformations in the Arctic and Antarctic. Against the backdrop of these transformations, it introduces the main research question guiding this book (Why have similar issues been treated and constructed as topics of concern in the politics of both Polar Regions?), sketches the conceptual inter-American entanglements perspective applied for the analysis and presents the central terms and structure of the book.