As millions of refugees from both Pakistan and India fled their homes, Gandhi went first east and then west in an effort to mitigate the consequences of a catastrophe he had sought to avert. In Calcutta, Gandhi collaborated with Muslim leaders in an effort to end Hindu-Muslim rioting. Throughout the devastation of World War II and then through chaos resulting from the partition of India and Pakistan, Gandhi never forgot the Bhagavad Gita or the ancient war in whose midst the dialogue occurs. In this war, the great leader Arjuna prevails, and then stands by as his elder brother Yudhishthira becomes a just ruler, after which Arjuna is content to become his self-effacing helper. Gandhi pointed out that the Bhagavad Gita had been composed in and for a time of change, and if creatively interpreted could offer cogent guidance as independent India entered a time of massive transition.