The relationship between youth, consumption, and the commercial market, however, has remained an area of debate. While theorists have generally moved away from mass culture perspectives that see young people as the passive victims of exploitative cultural industries, tensions have continued between approaches associated with political economy and those informed by the traditions of cultural studies. The concept of a ‘circuit of culture’ was originally developed in the mid-1980s by Richard Johnson. According to Johnson, to understand the way media forms develop, circulate, and generate meaning, attention must be given to the way they move through a ‘circuit’ consisting of three main stages – production, textuality, and reception. A ‘circuitous’ approach can also be productively applied to the analysis of youth culture and its relation to the media. Technological developments have also had an impact on the structures of production and the cultures of business organisation.