The non-consensual taking or sharing of nude or sexual imagery has become a significant and pervasive global problem in the digital era. Behaviours include the use of artificial intelligence to construct fake pornographic videos (also known as “deepfakes”); the sharing of nude or sexual images on revenge-oriented websites enticing users to “get back at” their ex-partners; the secret trading of sexual images among communities of online peers; “sextortion” scams involving threats to share nude or sexual imagery for blackmail purposes; and the taking or sharing of sexual assault imagery. The chapter begins with a discussion of the origins of the term “revenge porn”. This salacious term has helped draw attention to this issue, leading to a raft of new criminal and civil laws, as well as policies and educational programs tailored to better respond to the experiences of victim-survivors. However, the term “revenge porn” is widely criticised as oversimplifying perpetrator motivations and victim experiences. The authors use the term “image-based sexual abuse” to refer to the non-consensual taking of nude or sexual images; the non-consensual sharing of nude or sexual images; or threats made to share nude or sexual images.

This chapter also summarises the key findings of the authors’ empirical research on image-based sexual abuse, involving cross-country surveys in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, as well as interviews with stakeholders and victim-survivors.