Crassus’s campaign into the Parthian Empire in 54–53 BCE was a serious break from previous Roman policy. This chapter details events leading up to the campaign, including Gabinius’s decisions as Syrian governor in 57–55 BCE and the politics of the so-called First Triumvirate in the late 60s and 50s BCE, before reviewing the campaign and battle of Carrhae. The result was a stunning Parthian victory under Orodes II and his commander Surenas. Clearly in evidence is that Crassus was the first Roman opportunist to make Roman–Parthian war a reality, not just an image conjured to suggest Roman dominance over Parthia.