Carrhae significantly shaped Roman–Parthian relations. For Romans, it prompted fear and a desire for revenge, but the fractious politics of Rome was the priority, leading to a civil war in 49 BCE. In the process, statesmen like Pompey and Caesar attempted to align themselves with or against Parthia out of individual interest. For the Arsacids, Crassus’s violation of their sovereignty prompted incursions into Syria in the late 50s BCE, but their major invasion of 40–38 BCE was for more desperate reasons. The latter effort was turned back and led to a further campaign by Antony, which has been underestimated.