Lean production and the tandem management philosophy of total quality management (TQM) emphasize continuous attention to product and process improvements, and involvement of frontline workers in those improvement efforts. TQM without lean will meet correctly identified customer needs, but using methods that are costly and wasteful. The differentiator between winners and losers is that winners are better able to consistently provide products and services that are competitive with regard to quality, price, time, and response to change. Lean production continuously seeks ways to make the pipeline more adaptable to whatever materials or flow rates are desired, and to match the material flow as closely as possible to customer demand. With the implementation of the interchangeable part in production of rifles, clocks, wagons, and other products, a slow transformation began that would replace hand labor and craftsmanship with mechanization and division of labor. This chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.