This chapter explains reasons why and introduces total productive maintenance (TPM)—the philosophy that equipment is part of a company's competitive capability. It describes concepts and measures associated with equipment effectiveness, the role of preventive maintenance and TPM in increasing equipment effectiveness, and issues associated with implementing TPM. Breakdown repair is the practice of caring for equipment when it breaks. Equipment breakdown and malfunction directly contribute to wastes such as waiting, inventory, and product defects. Equipment problems have a direct effect on production cost, quality, and schedules. Preventive maintenance (PM) is the practice of tending to equipment so it will not break down and will operate according to requirements. Typical scheduled PM includes opening up equipment for thorough cleaning and replacing major internal components such as motors, bearings, valves, seals, and belts. Equipment responsibility in TPM is spread throughout departments, such as production, engineering, and maintenance, and to a range of people including equipment operators and shop floor associates.