The termination of the Great War produced a reaction against the old order of things 'pleasure and spending' came increasingly to the front, some of the older towns were described as 'grim', 'dead and alive'. The popularity of the South of England, and London in particular, increased enormously. London began to attract the business services functions of industrial companies, both regarding externally-purchased services and in-house managerial and administrative functions. Manufacturers preferred to be near London because they felt life there was more enjoyable, life had much more glitter, sparkle, and show: it was more superficial and sensational than before the War. Middle-class services employment experienced a larger increase, the proportion of 'white collar' employees in Britain's workforce rising from 18 per cent in 1911 to 23 per cent by 1931. Industrial developments in the West Midlands demonstrated an evolutionary pattern in which predominantly metal-based new industries developed complementary relationships with traditional skilled metal-working trades.