As the borders of the European Union changed with the addition of ten new members on 1 May 2004, an understanding of the contrasting economies of the pre- and post-expansion borderlands became of wider interest. The chapter examines the impact of the post-socialist transition and the preparation for joining Western Europe on villages in western and eastern border zones. On the Hungarian border with Romania, now the edge of 'Fortress Europe', border stations have already been brought up to EU standards, and exchange of information is helping to control people trafficking and the movement of drugs and stolen cars. The chapter also examines the impact of these changes through a case study of the eastern and western borders of Hungary with particular reference to gender and entrepreneurship. These changes have increased the level of uneven development in rural areas of Hungary. The chapter also presents an overview of key concepts discussed in this book.