In America, peoples find that the definition and redefinition of unemployment as a problem followed from the government's embrace of particular kinds of employment solutions and a particular prototype of employment. In Britain unemployment policies and concepts were framed by the intent to discourage casual work and encourage full-time work. In Britain Topalov argues, "Unemployment, before becoming a theoretical concept in the field of economics, was born as a tool for social action, or, better said, social surgery". Unemployment compensation systems existed in the USSR before the end of the New Economic Policies (NEP) in the 1920s and in various East European countries throughout the period of communist rule. Rural migration back and forth to the cities was inhibited by the collectivization of agriculture and policies requiring internal passports for travel within the USSR from 1932. Sporadic revolutionary violence had broken out and sympathetic municipalities set up pre-emptive funds for job-losers.