This chapter examines how governments, before 1979, responded to the problems of developing technologically complex weaponry. It focuses on the procedural and organisational changes introduced by governments in the period 1945-79. The chapter demonstrates how, after a number of attempts, governments were gradually forced to abandon the idea of using the private firm as a vehicle through which to develop major defence equipment and instead increasingly rely on heavily controlled quasi-autonomous defence industries. Before examining how private defence industries came to be superseded by the quasi-autonomous and eventually wholly state controlled firm, it is important to try to explain why this transformation took place. Command technology was also apparent in the development of the aircraft industry, both in the years leading up to the First World War and after. The application of science and engineering during the First World War was more than evident.