In this chapter, the authors begin by building a hierarchical set or organizing themes and concepts. At the finest level of detail, they identified particular kinds of tools and techniques that might be used at different stages of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process. At a much broader level, authors also identified several conceptual frameworks that have shaped contemporary thinking about the implementation of science in EIA. They pinointed a number of ecological concepts that have begun to find their way into EIA-related scientific applications. A review of the EIA-related scientific literature would not be complete without consideration for EIA's other two dimensions. Authors begin obtaining relevant literature by conducting searches in three major electronic databases: Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus. Database queries typically comprised specific scientific terms combined with generic EIA terms. Such phrases were carefully constructed to query all three databases exhaustively, thereby ensuring comprehensive coverage of the literature.