The excavation of Dryslwyn Castle produced physical evidence of a specific historic event, the siege of 1287. Historical source material for the siege falls into two main categories: financial accounts of the English government relating to payments for the campaign of 1287, held at the Public Record Office, and contemporary chronicle entries. The revolt of Rhys ap Maredudd and the siege of Dryslwyn received the attention of several historians of Wales in the last century. The collections of arrowheads and lithic projectiles from Dryslwyn are amongst the largest and most precisely dated from a British excavation, whilst the macehead is only the second starhead mace recovered from an archaeological context. The siege of Dryslwyn Castle is notable for its use of the trebuchet, which figures significantly in the financial accounts, although it made no impression on the chroniclers of the time. The number of arrowheads from Dryslwyn designed for piercing armour is substantial, amounting to 82% of the whole assemblage.