This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book. The book explores a clear and intimate picture of some aspects of life in one Indian village. It is a descriptive study of the village of Shamirpet in the State of Hyderabad. Each culture-area of India has its own nomenclature to classify the villages within its territory in respect of their size and population. The ethnic and linguistic composition of a village, as well as its caste constitution, also determines its character. The structure, ethos and problems of a wholly tribal village will be very different from those of a village with a mixed or homogeneous population. From the old ethnographic surveys and some preliminary studies published, an outline of the structure and organization of Indian villages is beginning to emerge clearly. Modern community studies represent a very significant development in the field of social anthropology and sociology.