In this chapter, the author looks at the way the brain develops from birth to adolescence and considers the main ways in which areas of the brain and brain activity are linked to particular abilities and behaviours. She considers in a broad way the impact of family, community and wider society. The author explains some of the wide discrepancies in the experiences of children and young people within their own society and the impact that this has on their development. She discusses environmental influences that interact with the child’s developing brain processes. The human brain consists of different areas, each of which is associated with certain faculties. Children and young people are physically healthier in the twenty-first century than they were in the past and there are now many more professionals supporting families than ever before. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.