This chapter explores the contemporary practices of the taegum in a wider context and its practical ramifications compared to historical practices before the 20th century. This period saw an enormous transformation in the identities of traditional instruments as their use adapted to changes in society. This chapter shows how the musical legacies of Korea have had to adapt in the modern era and illuminate the potential future of the Korean flute in a globalised world. In the course of modifying Eastern elements to the West, a gap emerged between the original tradition practised by local people and the image of that tradition prevalent abroad, which can be framed using the concepts of Nationalism and Orientalism. The influx of Western music triggered Nationalism within South Korean traditional music circles – as opposed to Orientalism among composers. More Korean musicians have begun to take the initiative to lead the internationalisation of Korean culture.