Due to the inadequacies of the RMA, Māori have turned to Treaty settlements to achieve their aspirations for water management. 1 There are two settlements on which this chapter will focus, namely the Waikato River Settlement and the Whanganui River Settlement. As background to these two settlements, and to indicate how Treaty settlements in relation to inland waters have developed over time, it will begin with a brief outline of both the 1998 Ngāi Tahu Settlement as it relates to Te Waihora (Lake Ellesmere) and the 2006 Te Arawa Lakes Settlement.