In 2004, the American National Intelligence Council published a report which drew a scenario of events, one of which would see the establishment of a caliphate by 2020. The growth of groups like HT in Indonesia, Bangladesh and Pakistan seems to affirm this view. This has resulted in growing apprehension in some circles in the West about the imminent threat posed by HT. While such fears are understandable, responses to HT must be measured and well-thought out. Misconstruing the threat posed by them and other similar groups or overreacting to this supposed threat is likely to intensify, rather than temper, the proliferation of these movements. In-depth studies to understand their growth are critical to allaying such fears.