This chapter introduces sustainable development as a holistic concept and the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a meta-policy framework that is applicable to all countries. It addresses key shortcomings of sustainability governance, which hence also applies to the implementation of the SDGs. It is suggested that metagovernance or ‘governance of governance’ is the most effective way to address governance failures and to build governance frameworks that are fit for purpose because they are adapted to different circumstances. The chapter introduces the three parts of the book and its key lines of thought: success and failure of governance and metagovernance, fifty features of governance and specific metagovernance challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals.