Chapter 7 discusses spatial cognition from the perspective of communication and external representations. The chapter first looks at spatial language, particularly focusing on the use of spatial frames of reference in the description and conceptualization of space. It also looks at different views on the relationship between language and cognition (or the issue of linguistic relativism). The chapter next considers the use and understanding of maps, pointing out that spatial orientation with a map entails interrelating the map, the environment, and the self, and it is not as straightforward as many people assume. It finally looks at studies of wayfinding and spatial orientation with satellite navigation tools and discusses implications for the design of navigation assistance.