Assessment-as-learning is designed to help learners develop their metacognitive abilities and their skill at self-assessment. Designers can use a wide range of available online tools to create effective traditional assessments. A critical aspect of assessment relates to its relevance to both the stated learning outcomes and to learners’ goals. Assessments should be aligned to outcomes, but as with outcomes, different assumptions about learning result in different types of assessments. Formal assessments are administered and graded using established scoring and interpretation rules. Examples include standardized tests, certification tests, examinations and quizzes, benchmark assessments, end-of-course exams, and performance tests given in a formal educational setting. Non-graded self-assessments represent an effective way to prompt students to self-reflect and set personal goals for learning and development. They provide a means of improving learners’ metacognitive skills and are thus used for assessment-as-learning. Feedback is evaluative or corrective information provided to a student regarding their performance on assessments of learning.