This chapter focuses on how learners and groups of learners differ, and how some of those differences can, and should, impact the design of instruction. A learner-centered design is said to be the most powerful contribution to effective instruction resulting from a systematic approach. The training designers may have had the most well-designed and engaging training program possible, but it failed, in part because they didn’t consider all the learner-related needs and contextual factors. Remember that the learner analysis for an instructional design project continually evolves throughout the life of the project as new information about learner needs and characteristics becomes available. The goal of both personalized learning and Universal Design for Learning is to produce self-directed, motivated learners who are given flexible choices that address their individual support needs, and who monitor their own progress and reflect on their learning.