This chapter provides an overview of the range of learning theories, pedagogical approaches, Instructional Design models, and alternative perspectives that are used in instructional design. The designer worked closely with the teaching staff to develop the courses, held several practice sessions so the teachers were comfortable with the delivery system, and made sure that the course formats, assessments, and interactions were compatible with each teacher’s preferred pedagogical style. Cognitive load theory, informs methods designed to reduce demand on learners’ working memory. The design challenge is most often interpreted as organizing and presenting information in a way to facilitate effective and efficient learner encoding, storage and retrieval. Learning about the different learning theories and the assumptions about learning on which they are based should be a focal point for reflective designers. An instructional designer uses theory to justify the selection of specific instructional elements and the placement or treatment of those elements in the design.