This chapter explores the rich history and diverse presence of Islam on the African continent. It begins by addressing the question whether Islam can be considered an “African religion”. Despite the fact that Islam had the earliest contact with Africa during the initial years of the development of the faith, and not withstanding that almost half of the total African population considers itself Muslim, still some scholars have argued that Islam is not an African religion because it did not originate from the African continent. Hence the chapter raises the question as to what exactly the term “African” signifies. Second, examining the complex ways in which Islam has settled on the continent and engaged with African cultures and societies, the chapter particularly explores the place of “black Africa” within the Islamic religious tradition. Third, exploring the factors that have facilitated the expansion of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa, the chapter discusses the two processes of “Islamization of Africa” and “Africanization of Islam”, in order to explain the nature of Islam in contemporary Africa. Lastly, attention is paid to how European colonialism related to the notion of Black Islam in Africa.