This chapter discusses the phenomenon of “neo-traditional religious movements” (NTRMs), that is, new religious movements with indigenous roots that have regularly appeared on the ever-changing social landscape since the era of African independence in the 1960s. The chapter distinguishes between various (though overlapping) types. First, prophetic movements that creatively combine biblical teachings with African beliefs. African Initiated Churches, for example, foreground distinctively African aspects of worship (like spirit possession) and traditional concerns (like healing), but remain fundamentally Christian. Second, NTRMs that fuse African concepts and practices with Islam, like the Dozo, a secret society of traditional hunters that blends indigenous sorcery with Muslim veneration of saints. Third, movements like Afrikania that attempt to forge a pan-African religion and restore pride in indigenous traditions. Typical of NTRMs is the self-conscious and systematic refashioning of fundamental forms and concepts in light of competing ideas, and in response to the many changes and challenges facing the continent. Not just “survivals” of traditional religious ways, NTRMs are imaginative reconstructions that speak to historical realities. This chapter presents important cases that arose over the past century, situates them in the historic contexts, and considers how globalization is causing them to shift their shape and purpose.