The government plays a leading role in innovative country building. As an important means of government macro-control, fiscal and taxation policies need to be further improved to promote independent innovation and innovative country building. The achievement of long-term sustainable development relies on scientific and technological progress and improvement of the quality of labor. The implementation of both the strategy of invigorating the country through science and education, and the strategy of invigorating the country through talents should be deepened. One of the important cornerstones of innovative country building is to promote enterprises to become the main body of independent innovation. As a national development strategy, independent innovation requires three kinds of policies: fiscal input, tax incentives, and government procurement. The education policy for talents matters to the play of the role of innovative talents in the process of independent innovation and the cultivation of national independent innovation capability.