The national innovation system reflects the organic combination of capital, technology, and system in the process of independent innovation, which is of great significance for independent innovation. At present, the reform of science and technology system has entered a new stage of overall design at the national level and systematically promotes the construction of a national innovation system. The experience of developed countries shows that there is no national capacity for innovation without the ability to innovate in enterprises. To promote technological progress and economic growth in developing countries, foreign direct investment (FDI) is conditional: first, the industrial technology choice of FDI in developed countries depends on the technological capabilities and competitiveness of developing countries. Building technological innovation system with enterprises as the main body, market oriented, and combining industry, education, and research will enable enterprises to become the main body of R&D investment, technological innovation, and application of achievements so as to enhance the capability of independent innovation of enterprises.