The objectives of an institutional framework for enhancing independent innovation capability are to systematize design at the top level, coordinate institutionalization, optimize allocation of resources, standardize the use of funds, make the management process more scientific, and maximize the output benefits. The administration of financial resources is an important and basic part of financial science and technology investment management. The resource management mode, to a certain extent, determines the investment management. The resources sharing of basic science and technology (S&T) conditions for science and technology is very policy-oriented work, involving the interests of departments, units, and researchers. According to the objective requirements of the socialist market economic system, combined with national conditions, and drawing on the experience of other market economy countries, China should take the unified market as the background and the market as the basic mechanism for resource allocation, together with the government’s active, appropriate, well-structured, and efficient management of S&T input and policy guidance.