The capability of independent innovation is a key factor in determining the competitive advantage of a country or a region. This chapter systematically reviews the research results, such as the definition, connotation, characteristics, impacting factors, development path, systemic index, and policy suggestion- on independent innovation capability and innovation-oriented countries. It also traces the basic development of theories on a National Innovation System. There are six basic elements of a National Innovation System, namely, the actors of innovation activities, the internal operational mechanism of actors, the connections among actors, innovation policies, market environment, and international connections. The chapter analyzes the importance and necessity of improving innovation capacity and building an innovative country, and proposes the stage characteristics that need attention as well as what modern-day China must focus on in order to improve the capacity of independent innovation and the building of an innovative country.