There are more than 20 universally acknowledged innovative countries in the world, including the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, South Korea, Singapore, and so on. One of the important features of an innovative country is its relatively complete national innovation system. Innovation refers not only to the discovery of a theory or technology invention but also to the entire process from the theory proposed to the R&D experiment and the large-scale applications, which also involves scientific research organizations, process improvement and improvement of management, and other aspects. This chapter discusses the three aspects, including innovation performance indicators of technological theory, innovation performance indicators of product technology, and innovation performance indicators of process technology and management, which are fully or partially reflected in the performance evaluation of an independent innovation project.