The establishment of an independent innovation development strategy is a major choice that follows the development trend of the world economy and science and technology globalization based on China’s national and practical conditions. Independent innovation is not only a major strategy for the development of science and technology but also an important strategy for economic development. In the past 30 years since the reform and opening up, China’s economy has achieved sustained and rapid growth of more than 9% annually. One of the important reasons is that technological progress has become an increasingly important factor in promoting economic growth. To build an innovative country, China must adhere to the guidelines of “making independent innovation, focusing on leapfrogging, supporting development, and leading the future”, so as to build and create a strong capability of primitive innovation and seize the initiative opportunities in scientific and technological revolution. Independent innovation in science and technology matters to the construction of national innovation system.