The policy of encouraging innovation is an important guarantee for enhancing the capability of national independent innovation. As the main methods of government macro-control, fiscal and taxation policies should play an important role in optimizing the allocation of science and technology resources, stimulating technological innovative activities and industrializing scientific and technological achievements, and creating a good environment for independent innovation. Different fiscal and taxation policies have different transmission mechanisms and different functional mechanisms for promotion of independent innovation. As an incentive policy, the fiscal and taxation policies aim at stimulating the innovation desire of innovation entities and creating a favorable external environment for innovation entities. In terms of promoting the realization of market-oriented technology innovation, the fiscal and taxation policies can play a role in reducing the market risk of enterprises, creating market demands for new products and technologies, guiding social needs, and promoting smooth industrialization of independent innovation technologies.