Independent innovation is the fundamental way to achieve the goal of constructing an innovative country. In recent years, China has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and measures to enhance the capability of independent innovation of the whole society. Among them, fiscal and taxation policies, as the main policy tools, have played an important role in promoting independent innovation and the construction of an innovative country. This chapter sorts out and analyzes the status quo of current fiscal and taxation policies on independent innovation in China and points out the main problems that exist. Although the absolute amount of China’s fiscal input in science and technology has been growing year by year, its rate of increase in recent years has been relatively large, and the growth rate of fiscal science and technology funds in 2009 reached 24.91%. The export market for domestic innovative products and technologies is lacking.