This chapter defines the former and their associated theory of value, based upon heterodox microeconomic approaches to the structure, agency and the social provisioning process. The heterodox theory of value emerges from the model of the going economy and its theoretical core, which means that it is much more than simply a theory of prices. There are a number of variants of the social surplus approach, one being the Sraffian approach and another being the heterodox approach. Like the Sraffian surplus approach, the heterodox surplus approach starts with some assumed givens that characterize an actual capitalist economy: technology, class, capitalist state, and a viable economy. The business enterprise is a specific social organization for coordinating and carrying out economic activities in a manner that mirrors the social relationships in capitalist society. The outcome of the chapter is that unexpected but not unfamiliar or impossible arguments, claims and conclusions emerge. The chapter concludes with a heterodox theory of value.