Exponents of bottom-up development literature and development practitioners can benefit from the results. When related to literature about public–private partnerships, development scholars can consult in order to better understand the motivation of the corporate sector. They can support the private sector in applying a bottom-up development approach, but also accept its limitations. Antagonisms also appear; once compared to bottom-up development literature, and once to Base of the Pyramid (BoP) literature. Business practitioners can consult the framework and its implications for their BoP ventures. They are motivated to choose a bottom-up approach as this delivers the potential to have a more positive impact on development goals, and also to make markets truly inclusive. 'Avoiding Westernisation' was no reason to choose a bottom-up approach for the companies observed. If a bottom-up development approach is applied consequently and the poor control the processes, there is no need for managers to spend a lot of time in the target communities.