The objective was to build empirically validated constructs that help to build theory on applying a bottom-up development perspective in the innovation process of Base of the Pyramid (BoP) ventures. In the theoretical part, concepts and theories from different research areas were combined—or assumptions were drawn out of bottom-up development literature that might be applied to the innovation process of BoP ventures. Alterations are legitimate in theory-building research because investigators are trying to understand each case individually and in as much depth as possible. Most companies have only started to integrate the poor into their innovation process for BoP ventures and lack experience. The companies learn what works and what does not in their projects, regardless of whether it is already profitable. It is an analysis about the current state the companies are in at the moment rather than about 'successful best practice'.