This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book focuses on the land access and resettlement process and explores the business case for undertaking land access and resettlement in a comprehensive and best practice manner. It highlights the key components, issues, challenges and risks in the land access and resettlement process and it provides to lessons learned from real project experience. The book discusses guiding principles, useful tools and key points to bear in mind for tackling challenges. It provides a practical roadmap for corporate leaders, project managers, practitioners, academia, government and civil society for planning and implementing successful land access and resettlement. The book details the necessary data required for projects to be properly planned and the various methodologies to ensure data is collected in an inclusive, efficient, comprehensive and secure manner. It considers issues surrounding cultural heritage, including archaeological and traditionally significant sites, cemeteries and graves.