This chapter outlines how to approach baseline data collection and analysis. The collection of baseline data is a critical step in project planning and underpins the effectiveness of the whole land access and resettlement process. The main problem encountered with baseline data collection is the piecemeal collection of data by different experts in an uncoordinated manner. The team leader should be a general social expert with the ability to assess the overall data collection needs on the project and where specialist input is required. An important step early in the baseline data collection and impact assessment phases is to demarcate the project's area of influence and buffer zone requirements. The collection of data from a representative sample is critical to be able to make generalisations about the population being studied. A variety of data collection tools are used to produce a record of the baseline conditions in the communities prior to project implementation.