This chapter explores practical process of planning the social impact assessment (SIA) and Resettlement action plan (RAP) in a co-ordinated way to ensure that the linkages between the Social impact management plan and RAP mitigation measures are complementary and aligned. It outlines the SIA process and examines the assessment of impacts in land access and resettlement projects. National legislation on environmental permitting of projects often contains limited references or requirements to SIA. The chapter focuses on the assessment of impacts and development of proposed mitigation, particularly minimising displacement. It also outlines a practical process for identifying all the important impacts found on projects. The type, scale and location of the project will guide the scope and level of effort devoted to the risks and impacts identification process. The cumulative impact of longer-term trends and shocks must be considered when assessing project impacts to understand how households can be assisted to cope.