While awaiting the appointment of new justices, William Bradford Reynolds worked to keep the Reagan administration true to the president's principles. Reynolds said the result was predictable. To satisfy the bureaucratic numbers game, federal contractors "denied jobs and promotions to better qualified non-minorities because of race and sex". Reagan's backing away from the proposed revision of 11246 meant that litigation would continue to be the primary vehicle for advancing the administration's civil rights program. In 1977, Congress provided that 10 percent of all federal grants awarded by the Department of Commerce should be given to minority business enterprises. Reynolds thought Griggs could be useful in ferreting out instances where an employer's standards and practices served only to keep out minorities. Reynolds explained that employers feared that egalitarian bureaucrats and judges would accuse them of discrimination if blacks were concentrated at the bottom of the occupational hierarchy.